terça-feira, 23 de outubro de 2007

Distribution of the Thermoelectrial Plants in Brazil

1. The energy concept according to "Aurélio master" (New Aurélio Dictionary of the Portuguese Language, New Publishing company Border):
Energy. [ Of the energéia gr., for lat. energy ]. 1, Way as if exerts a force. 2. Moral force; firmness. 3, Vigor, force. 4. Filos. According to Aristotle, the same exercise of the activity, in opposition to the power of the activity and, therefore, to the form; energéia. 5, Fís. Property of a system that allows it to carry through work. [ the energy can have some forms (calorific, kinetic, electric, electromagnetic, mechanics, potential, chemistry, radiating), you transformed ones into the others, and each one capable one to provoke phenomena individualized assets and characteristic in the physical systems. In all the transformations of energy have complete conservation of it, i. and, the energy cannot be servant, but only transformed (first principle of the thermodynamics). The mass of a body can be transformed into energy, and the energy under radiating form can changed into a corpuscle with mass ].

It wants to say, "property of a system that allows it to carry through work", or either, can be gotten some utility of it, and is important to understand that one is about energy forms (that is, diverse manifestations) that ones is changedded into the others, that is, what it has are energy flows. The energy flows of continuous form, in both directions, through the way that encircles the Land. The principal source of energy is the radiation of the Sun, increased of small amounts of heat come from the interior of the planet and of the energy of the tides due to the gravitational interaction of the Land with the Sun and the Moon Of the solar radiation, approximately thirty percent is reflected in return for the space. Fifty percent is almost absorbed by the atmosphere, the a surface terrestrial and the oceans and converted into heat. Some thing for return of twenty percent participates in the hidrológicos cycles (evaporation, precipitation and circulation of the water); it still remains a small.causing fraction of the winds and the waves of the sea, being a fraction lesser the one that if incorporates the biomass of the planet, through the photosyntheses process that happens in green leves of the plants. Pequeníssima was this fraction, "corporizada" in the beings livings creature, that in last the 600 million years place gave (through complex phenomena biochemists, geologic, mechanical, etc.) to fósseis fuels, oil, mineral coal and natural gas.

Thus, in the phenomenon of generation of electricity from a river, the turbine placed in the way of the water carries through the transformation of its movement (kinetic energy) in electric energy. In a thermoelectrial central office the gas, is carried through the transformation of the chemical energy of the molecules that constitute the first natural gas in energy mechanics and later in electric energy. Into the car, this chemical energy (either of the gasoline or the alcohol) is transformed into movement (energy kinetic mechanics and). Into a barbecue, the chemical energy of the vegetal coal (or the firewood) if transforms into the heat that cooks the meat. In these examples, diverse parts can be identified. On the other hand, the "sources" of energy: the water of the river, the natural gas, the gasoline, the alcohol, the vegetal coal, the firewood; for another one, the "machine" in which if processes the transformation of a form of energy in another one: the turbine, the boiler, the engine, the churrasqueira. Finally, the use that if makes (energy consumption) to have the product that if it desires: the household-electric ones "moved" the electricity, the car in movement, the meat that it feeds. Analyzing the sources, it is observed that some are "primary", in the direction that are provided by the nature in its direct form and are used directly or give place to one another form that is the one that will be used. Thus, the oil, the natural gas, the mineral coal, the firewood (biomass in general), the Uranian one, the water (hydraulical energy), the sun, the wind are primary sources of energy, etc. They are "secondary": the electricity, the gasoline, the vegetal coal, the alcohol, etc.

Therefore, some phases are identified: the "production" or "generation" of energy, its "distribution", and its "consumption" or final use, phases these that must be in tunning so that "the energy can flow harmoniously" since its source until its use, what it wants to say that it is necessary to have a planning of all the stages and processes that have adjusted to the production and the consumption having in the way the distribution. The current crisis of electric energy ("electricity lack") was provoked by a growth of "offers" minor who the necessary one to take care of to the growth of the "demanda".(Mário Cenicig Oscar - Interdisciplinar Nucleus of energy planning (NIPE) of the Unicamp)

Combat to wastefulness
The energy is produced by means of the construction of hidroelétricas and nuclear central offices or the fósseis fuel use in thermal plants, expensive and harmful solutions to the environment. However, one another solution if offers: the economy of energy by means of good habits on the part of the consumers and the development and diffusion of new more efficient technologies. Some intelligent habits:
- To acquire energeticamente efficient products and to keep them adequately are basic attitudes for the combat to the energy wastefulness. As example, we have our refrigerators who are extremely gastonas, when compared, for example, with the Japaneses. This if gives due to the bad quality or the insufficience of the used thermal insulators in the high temperatures of the tropical countries. Moreover, the situated engine in the inferior part of the refrigerator heats air and, as hot air goes up, it heats the device. The Japanese refrigerators possess engine in the superior part and consume half of the energy of the good American refrigerators north of same size. But they need to be complemented with new habits, that you adopt without any sacrifice. a) During the day, she uses to advantage the solar rays and she prevents to light light bulbs. To the night, she only leaves lighted the ones that will be using. b) Assista TV, but disconnect the device when nobody will be attending, it does not sleep with on it. c) Cante the will in the bathroom, but does not delay very in the bath, the electric shower consumes sufficiently. If you to want to save 30% of energy, keeps the key in the position summer.

d) When attacking the refrigerator, removes foods of one alone time, does not place hot food there inside.
e) To using conditional air, keeps doors and closed windows, before leaving, disconnect the device. The clandestine installations, the famous "cats" place in risk our bare life and wires, that give shocks and leave to escape current. Many other examples can be cited, but, resumidamente to fight wastefulness is: To use the energy of intelligent form; Not to play energy it are; To assume the commitment with the preservation of the planet; To only spend the necessary one, breaching the resistance human being in esbanjar energy. Many advantages are found fighting the energy wastefulness. These advantages emphasize basic values, as: concern with the quality of life; protection to the natural resources and exercise of the citizenship; it extends in the time, the natural resources you still did not renew available; It contributes to minimize the ambient impacts; to reduce costs for the nation and the consumer; to maximize the exploitation of the effected investments already in the electrical system; it induces the industrial modernization; it improves the international competitiveness of the products of consumption and the manufactured durable goods in Brazil. To fight the wastefulness of electric energy we have that to also count on some segments of consumption and on the electrical system. To the electrical system it fits to reduce the losses in the stages of generation, transmission and distribution of energy, as well as developing projects that have as objective to fight wastefulness.

The segments of consumption are several and already cited some intelligent habits how much to the consumption in the residences. In the industry, the combat to wastefulness can be sped up increasing it energy efficiency in the machines, processes, procedures and products. By means of energy disgnostic, the maintenance routines are perfected and verify the functioning of the equipment and installations. Thus, the plants save time and raw material, creates qualified jobs, increases the productivity and perfects the end item. In the commerce, combat wastefulness already in the constructions and reforms of the installations by means of the choice of adequate materials. The systems of refrigeration and illumination also demand a special attention. In the public power and services the combat to wastefulness with the efficiency of the installations is reached. In the public illumination, it is gotten the same resulted changing the inefficient light bulbs for others of better income. In agriculture, the combat to wastefulness depends on the improvement of the execution of the irrigation systems. The citizen can make sufficiently to fight the energy wastefulness. Its performance reverts in its proper benefit, therefore it represents in economy in its pocket and improvement of its quality of life. It is an intelligent attitude that contributes for the sustainable development, beyond the exercise of the citizenship.

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