terça-feira, 23 de outubro de 2007

Thermoelectrial energy

Thermoelectrial energy

The thermoelectrial energy is responsible for 80% of the electricity produced in the world. The used fuels are coal, natural gas and derivatives of the oil. The biggest volume of natural gas meets in the Amazônia, in the region of Urucu. The electricity provém of the heat originated for the burning of the fuel, that heats a boiler with water. The vapor sets in motion the turbine, connected to a generator of electric energy. The problem is that the thermoelectrial ones need a great amount of water to cool its turbines, the same water of the rivers that lacks for the hidrelétricas plants.

The termoeletricidade is produced by a generator and carried until the places from consumption for transmission lines. This generator is stimulated by the energy resultant of the burning of a fuel. When burning, the fuel heats the boiler with water, producing vapor with a so high pressure that it moves the shovels of a turbine, that in turn sets in motion the generator.
Any product capable to generate heat can be used as combustible, it bagasse of diverse plants to the remaining portions of the wood. The used fuels more are: combustible oil, oil diesel, natural, Uranian gas enriched (that it gives origin to the nuclear energy) and the mineral coal.

Almost all the Brazilian mineral coal is used in the thermoelectrial generation, use that requires the solid control of effluent liquids and residues, beyond Co2 (carbonic gas), CO, sulphur reticulados, hydro-carbons, oxides and nitrogen.

The Co2 is main responsible for the increase of the effect the greenhouse. The excessively pollutant ones cause damages to the people, animals and plants, besides causing acid rains, that affect the hídricos ground, resources, vegetation and constructions

Thermoelectrial plant (in Portugal: termoléctrica central office) is a destined installation to convert the energy of a fuel into electric energy. The fuel stored in tanks (natural gas, coal oil, etc) is sent for the plant, to be burnt in the boiler, that generates vapor from the water that circulates for pipes in its walls. The vapor is that it puts into motion the shovels of a turbine, on directly to a generator of electric energy. This energy is carried by lines high-voltage to the consumption centers. The vapor is cooled in a condenser, from a refrigeration water circuit. This water can come from a river, lake or sea, depending on the localization of the plant, and does not enter in direct contact with the vapor that will be converted another time into water, that comes back to the pipes of the boiler, giving beginning to a new cycle.

As some types of energy generation, the termeletricidade also cause ambient impacts; it is responsible for the increase of the Effect the greenhouse, the too much heating of the terrestrial surface, acid rain, etc, besides demanding much money for the fuel purchase. The natural gas burning spear in the atmosphere great amounts of pollutants, besides being a fossil fuel that does not recover. Brazil launches per year 4,5 million tons of carbon in the atmosphere, with the termelétricas plants this pointer will arrive the 16 million. The thermoelectrial ones have the advantage to be able to be installed next to the consuming centers, thus diminishing the extension of the transmission lines, minimizing consequently the losses to the long one of these lines, that could arrive until 16%.

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